Konu Almanca perfekt tense sunumu% 2008-03-29 (22:33)
Kayıt: 2008-02-19 (17:05)
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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
OVERVIEW
Formation
haben / sein
+
past
participle
(Partizip II)
In English, the PRESENT PERFECT tense is formed using the "helping" (auxiliary) verb
"to have" plus the past participle of the main verb:
He has learned a lot.
They have gone to the movies.
In German, The PRESENT PERFECT tense ("PERFEKT" auf Deutsch) is formed using the
"helping" verbs haben or sein plus the past participle (“PARTIZIP II”) of the main verb. The
past participle goes at the very end of the sentence:
Er hat im letzten Semester viel gelernt.
Sie sind gestern Abend ins Kino gegangen.
Usage
Note that English only uses the PRESENT PERFECT TENSE in certain
situations. If you want to express what you did last night, you would say:
“I went to the movies” (SIMPLE PAST TENSE), not
“I have gone to the movies.” (PRESENT PERFECT TENSE)
German, however, often uses PRESENT PERFECT TENSE in conversation
to express something that happened in the past. In German, if you wanted to
express what you did last night, you would most likely say:
“Ich bin ins Kino gegangen” (PRESENT PERFECT TENSE), not
“Ich ging ins Kino” (SIMPLE PAST TENSE)
German uses the SIMPLE PAST TENSE most often when narrating a sequence of events (usually
in written form, such as short stories or newspaper articles).
In normal conversation, German also uses SIMPLE PAST for the verbs sein, haben, werden,
and the modal verbs. With most all other verbs, the PRESENT PERFECT TENSE is preferred.
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Past Participles
(Partizipien)
I. WEAK VERBS
In English and in German, some verbs are regular (these are called WEAK VERBS).
In English, the past participle of weak verbs is formed simply by adding the suffix -ed
to the infinitive:
Infinitive
Past Participle
to learn
to play
to ask
(has) learned
(has) played
(has) asked
In German, the past participle of weak verbs is formed by adding the prefix ge-* and the suffix -t
(or –et**) to the stem of the infinitive:
Infinitive
Past Participle
lernen
spielen
fragen
verhören
studieren
arbeiten
(hat) gelernt
(hat) gespielt
(hat) gefragt
(hat) verhört
(hat) studiert
(hat) gearbeitet
* unless infinitive already has an unstressed prefix or ends in -ieren
** if stem of infinitive ends in t or d
II. IRREGULAR WEAK VERBS
In German, some verbs whose past participles end in “t” (as in all weak verbs) contain a change
in their stem or stem vowell:
Infinitive
Past Participle
denken
bringen
kennen
brennen
nennen
senden
(hat ) gedacht
(hat) gebracht
(hat) gekannt
(hat) gebrannt
(hat) genannt
(hat) gesandt
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Modal verbs are also irregular weak verbs. They lose their umlaut in the past participle:
Infinitive
Past Participle
müssen
können
dürfen
mögen
sollen
wollen
(hat) gemusst
(hat) gekonnt
(hat) gedurft
(hat) gemocht
(hat) gesollt
(hat) gewollt
III. STRONG VERBS:
In English and in German, some verbs are irregular (these are called STRONG VERBS).
In English, the past participle of strong verbs is different from the infinitive: There is
usually a vowel change, and there is no -ed ending.
Infinitive
Past Participle
to drink
to drive
to go
to leave
to sing
(has) drunk
(has) driven
(has) gone
(has) left
(has) sung
In German, the past participle of strong verbs is formed by adding the prefix ge-* and the suffix -
en to the stem of the infinitive. In addition, there is often a vowel change.
Infinitive
Past Participle
trinken
fahren
gehen
lassen
verlassen
singen
(hat) getrunken
(ist) gefahren
(ist) gegangen
(hat) gelassen
(hat) verlassen
(hat) gesungen
* unless infinitive already has an unstressed prefix
Remember, there is no way to tell which verbs are weak and which are strong. You also cannot
necessarily tell from the English, since some weak verbs in English are strong in German, and
vice versa. You might do well to study lists of strong verbs (provided for you in this package),
but remember: practice makes perfect!
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Page 4
Auxiliary Verbs
Haben / Sein
1. All verbs which have a direct object will take haben. (These are called "transitive" verbs.)
Transitive Verbs
Ich habe den Mann gesehen.
Er hat sich amüsiert.
Sie hat den Ball getroffen.
Sie hat ihren Freund zum Bahnhof gefahren.
Er hat das Flugzeug selbst geflogen.
2. Verbs which do not take a direct object (these are called "intransitive" verbs) will also take
haben, unless they show a change in position or condition. If they indicate a change in position
or condition, these intransitive verbs will take sein.
Intransitive Verbs
showing no change in position or condition
Das Auto hat an der Ecke gestanden.
Ich habe gut geschlafen.
Er hat stark geblutet.
Der Baum hat geblüht.
Du hast zu lange in der Sonne gelegen.
Intransitive Verbs
showing change in position or condition
Ich bin nach San Francisco gefahren.
Er ist nach Hause gegangen.
Ich bin in der Klasse eingeschlafen.
Er ist fast verblutet.
Sie ist in die Armee eingetreten.
Wann bist du nach Hause gekommen?
Er ist an Krebs gestorben.
Er ist vom Baum gefallen.
Sie ist sehr krank geworden.
3. The only two exceptions to the above rule are the intransitive verbs "sein" and "bleiben",
which show no change in position or condition, but nevertheless take sein:
Sie ist in Afrika gewesen.
Ich bin zu Hause geblieben.
Copyright © 2003 by Ingeborg Walther




Haben, sein, werden
These important verbs are conjugated as follows in the present tense. These patterns should be second nature to you, as you will be using them again and again to form the other tenses and verb forms:

haben to have
ich habe wir haben
du hast ihr habt
er/sie/es hat sie/Sie haben
sein to be
ich bin wir sind
du bist ihr seid
er/sie/es ist sie/Sie sind
werden to become
ich werde wir werden
du wirst ihr werdet
er/sie/es wird sie/Sie werden
I go vs. I am going
German has no equivalent to the English "-ing" form. ==> "I am going" and "I go" are both translated by the regular present tense in German:

I go. Ich gehe.
I am going. Ich gehe.
Ich bin gehen.
I eat. Ich esse.
I am eating. Ich esse
Ich bin essen.
More details
Click here to see more details, e.g. about verbs like "arbeiten" whose stem ends in a -t, about the conjugation of the verbs "wissen" and "tun," or about how to translate the "Do" that often introduces yes/no questions in English.
Zurück nach oben
Overview of Past Tenses in German
English has all kinds of ways to express past events, and there are subtle differences in meaning between them: I went, I have gone, I was going...
German has two past tenses, which we are calling "Perfekt" and "Präteritum" in this course, and there are no differences in meaning between them. The difference is simply that "Perfekt" (the two-word-past-tense) is used in informal contexts (speaking and informal writing), and "Präteritum" (the one-word-past tense) is used in more formal writing and speaking.
Perfekt [=Perfect Tense] Two-word form:
Ich bin gegangen Informal Either form translates "I went," "I have gone" and "I was going"
Präteritum [=Narrative Past, Simple Past, Imperfect] One-word form:
Ich ging Formal
Students often wonder why the two-word form, which seems more complicated, would be informal, while the seemingly simpler one-word form is formal. It turns out that formal language is actually very often much simpler than informal language: as one example, think how much harder it would be to teach someone everything involved in saying "I ain't gonna learn no &*%#@ Präteritum" and saying "I will not learn the Präteritum."
When to use the Präteritum in speaking
The formal/informal distinction is actually not so clear-cut. You will in fact see some two-word forms in formal writing, and hear some one-word forms in informal speech. There are few clear rules regarding this. You need to know that Präteritum is usually used in speaking for the following verbs:

haben sein modal verbs: können, müssen, dürfen, mögen, wollen, sollen
hatte etc. war etc. konnte, musste, durfte, mochte, wollte, sollte etc.
For the modal verbs, the reason for this is that to form the perfect tense with a modal verb, one actually needs a double infinitive construction, which sounds awkward in speaking: it is much simpler to say "Ich musste Kenny töten" than "Ich habe Kenny töten müssen." [I realize this contradicts the argument I just made above about informal language generally being more complicated than formal language... Üzgün ]
Zurück nach oben
Perfekt [Perfect Tense]
Basically, the perfect tense is formed by combining haben or sein with the past participle of the verb. So you need to know the rules for the formation of the past participle, and the rules for deciding between "haben" and "sein" as the auxiliary verb.
haben vs sein
If in doubt, use "haben." "Sein" is used if
• the verb describes motion (e.g. running, jumping, skipping, but not e.g. writing or nodding one's head, which do involve motion, but are not primarily "about" that motion) or a change of location (e.g. travelling or moving from one house to another [umziehen])
• the verb describes a change of state (e.g. waking up or falling asleep, but not sleeping itself, which is a constant state)
In addition, even if the verb describes motion, "sein" is not used if the verb has an accusative object (e.g. "Ich bin gefahren," but "Ich habe das Auto gefahren").
Exceptions
The verbs "sein," "bleiben" [=to stay], "passieren" [=to happen], "geschehen" [=to happen] and "gelingen" [=to succeed] use "sein" as their auxiliary, even though they do not really describe motion or changes of state.
Summary
The following table summarizes the main points by some contrastive examples:

sein haben
Ich bin gerannt/gesprungen/gelaufen/gehüpft/ gegangen
[Motion] Ich habe gegessen/getrunken/gelesen/gelacht/ gesungen/Tennis gespielt/Fußball gespielt/meine tante besucht [=visited]...
[Note that many of these activities involve motion, but are not primarily "about" moving]
Ich bin gefahren
[Motion] Ich habe den Porsche gefahren
[Motion, but the verb has an accusative object]
Ich bin geflogen
[Motion] Ich habe das Flugzeug geflogen
[Motion, but the verb has an accusative object]
Ich bin eingeschlafen [=fell asleep], Ich bin aufgewacht [=woke up]
[Changes of state] Ich habe geschlafen
[A constant, very pleasant state]
Ich bin gestorben [=died]
[Change of state] Ich habe Barney getötet [=killed]
[I changed Barney's state, but not my own]
Ich bin nach Kuba geschwommen
[Motion] Ich habe/bin geschwommen
[If you are not swimming to get somewhere, you can use haben or sein with "schwimmen."]
Formation of the past participle
Strong [Irregular] vs Weak [Regular] Verbs
Past participles of strong [irregular] verbs end in -en. Past particples of weak [regular] verbs end in -t. Past particples of mixed verbs (the 8 or so weak verbs that are nevertheless irregular) also end in -t.
Rules for the "ge"
• Normally, "ge-" is placed in front of the past particple: geschlafen, gelacht, gesagt, gesehen...
• Separable prefix verbs have the "ge" between the prefix and the rest of the verb: ferngesehen, aufgemacht, aufgestanden, mitgekommen...
• Verbs with inseparable prefixes such as "be-," "ent-," "ver-," and "ge-" do not get a "ge" in their past participles: bezahlt, entdeckt, verstanden, gefallen...
• Verbs ending in -ieren are always weak and don't add "ge": studiert, dekoriert, alarmiert...
Summary
The following table summarizes the main points regarding the formation of the past participle:
strong [irregular] verbs weak [regular] verbs mixed verbs
"Normal" verbs Du hast gesehen/ gegessen/geschlafen
Du bist gelaufen/ gegangen/gestorben Du hast gelacht/gesagt/ gearbeitet
Du bist gewandert/ gehüpft Du hast gebracht/ gekannt/gedacht/ gebracht/gewusst
Du bist gerannt.
Separable Prefix Verbs Du hast mitgenommen/ ferngesehen/ abgenommen
Du bist umgezogen/ weggegangen/ eingeschlafen Du hast eingekauft/ abgeholt
Du bist aufgewacht Du hast mitgebracht
Du bist weggerannt.
Inseparable Prefix Verbs Du hast verstanden/ begonnen/bekommen
Du bist entkommen/ entstanden Du hast entdeckt/ verkauft/übersetzt
Du bist entflammt [=burst into flames] Du hast erkannt
Du bist verbrannt
-ieren Verbs Du hast studiert/ diskutiert/probiert
Du bist explodiert/ kollidiert
1 defa değiştirildi En Son: 2012-05-23 18:28:44
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Konu 2008-03-31 (11:16)
Kayıt: 2006-06-18 (03:02)
Mesaj: 17
bu konuda nasıl yardımcı olabiliriz?
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Konu slm 2008-03-31 (15:54)
Kayıt: 2008-02-19 (17:05)
Mesaj: 7
bu konuyu almanca olarak anlatımı lazım.genelde ingilizce açıklamalar kullanılmıştır..
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